Products
Pre-Nursing
Nursing Student
NCLEX Prep
New Grad
Join NURSING.com to watch the full lesson now.

01.02 Macro and Micronutrients

Show More

Overview

  1. Macronutrients – substance that is required in relatively large amounts for growth and health
    1. Types
      1. Carbohydrate
        1. Function: supply energy to the body
        2. Recommended intake: minimum 130 g/day
        3. Example food sources: fruits, vegetables, grains, starches
      2. Fat
        1. Function: energy storage, insulation, organ protection, fat soluble vitamin absorption
        2. Recommended intake: total fat 20-35% of daily calories; saturated fat <10% daily calories
        3. Example food sources: Nuts, seeds, oils, meat, dairy, fish, salad dressings, baked goods
      3. Protein
        1. Function: structure, growth, maintenance and repair, enzymes, hormones, pH and fluid balance, immune system
        2. Recommended intake: 46 g adult female; 56 g adult male
        3. Example food sources: meat, fish, dairy, eggs, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains
  2. Micronutrients – substance that is required in relatively smaller amounts for growth and health
    1. Types
      1. Fat soluble vitamins
        1. Vitamin A
          1. Function: vision, immune system, growth, reproduction, cell growth and differentiation
          2. Recommended intake: 700 mcg RAE adult female; 900 mcg RAE adult male
          3. Example food sources: liver, egg yolks, fortified milk and dairy products, dark colored fruits and vegetables
        2. Vitamin D
          1. Function: calcium and phosphorus balance, bone growth, immune system
          2. Recommended intake: 600 IU adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: fatty fish, fortified milk and dairy products
        3. Vitamin E
          1. Function: antioxidant, immune system
          2. Recommended intake: 15 mg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, fortified cereals, fruits, vegetables
        4. Vitamin K
          1. Function: blood clotting, bone health
          2. Recommended intake: 90 mcg adult female; 120 mcg adult male
          3. Example food sources: leafy green vegetables, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, other vegetables
      2. Water soluble vitamins
        1. Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
          1. Function: metabolism, nervous system
          2. Recommended intake: 1.1 mg adult female; 1.2 mg adult male
          3. Example food sources: pork, fortified cereals, whole grains, enriched bread products
        2. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
          1. Function: metabolism, energy production, growth, development
          2. Recommended intake: 1.1 mg adult female; 1.3 mg adult male
          3. Example food sources: liver, meat, dairy, yogurt, fortified cereals
        3. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
          1. Function: energy production, metabolism, DNA
          2. Recommended intake: 14 mg adult female; 16 mg adult male
          3. Example food sources: lean meats, poultry, fish, peanuts, and yeasts
        4. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
          1. Function: metabolism
          2. Recommended intake: 1.3 mg adult female and male
          3. beef, chicken, organ meats, yogurt, fortified cereals, some vegetables (especially mushrooms)
        5. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
          1. Function: metabolism, nervous system, immune system
          2. Recommended intake: 1.3 mg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: beef, poultry, fish, fortified foods
        6. Biotin (Vitamin B7)
          1. Function: metabolism, gene regulation
          2. Recommended intake: 30 mcg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: liver, eggs, fish, meat nuts, seeds, certain vegetables
        7. Folate (Vitamin B9)
          1. Function: DNA/RNA, amino acid metabolism
          2. Recommended intake: 400 mcg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, grains, seafood, meat, poultry, eggs
        8. Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)
          1. Function: red blood cell formation, nervous system, DNA
          2. Recommended intake: 2.4 mcg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: meat, fish, poultry, milk, milk products, fortified foods
        9. Vitamin C
          1. Function: collagen and connective tissue, antioxidant, protein metabolism, wound healing
          2. Recommended intake: 75 mg adult female; 90 mg adult male
          3. Example food sources: fruits and vegetables
      3. Minerals
        1.  Calcium
          1. Function: bones, teeth, muscle function, heart, nervous system
          2. Recommended intake: 1000 mg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: milk, yogurt, cheese, canned fish with bones, some vegetables
        2. Magnesium
          1. Function: protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood pressure, bone health, RNA/DNA
          2. Recommended intake: 320 mg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains
        3. Phosphorus
          1. Function: bones, teeth, DNA/RNA, cell membranes, energy production and storage, enzyme activation
          2. Recommended intake: 700 mg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, nuts, legumes, some vegetables
        4. Iron
          1. Function: hemoglobin, muscle metabolism, connective tissue, growth, development
          2. Recommended intake: 18 mg adult female; 8 mg adult male
          3. Example food sources: meat, seafood, nuts, beans, vegetables, fortified grains
        5. Potassium
          1. Function: fluid balance, nervous system, muscle and heart contraction
          2. Recommended intake: 4700 mg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: certain fruits and vegetables, legumes, meat, poultry, fish, dairy
        6. Sodium
          1. Function: fluid balance, blood volume
          2. Recommended intake: 2300 mg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: cheese, smoked, cured, salted or canned meat, some processed foods, canned foods, salted nuts and seeds
        7. Zinc
          1. Function: immune system, protein synthesis, DNA, taste and smell
          2. Recommended intake: 8 mg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: oysters, red meat, poultry, beans, seeds, fortified cereals
        8. Copper
          1. Function: energy production, iron metabolism, connective tissue, nervous system
          2. Recommended intake: 900 mcg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: shellfish, organ meats, nuts, whole grains, chocolate
        9. Manganese
          1. Function: metabolism, antioxidant, blood clotting, bone health, immune system, reproduction
          2. Recommended intake: 1.8 mg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: mussels, oysters, clams, nuts, legumes, rice, whole grains, leafy green vegetables, coffee, tea, some spices
        10. Selenium
          1. Function: reproduction, thyroid, DNA, antioxidant, immune system
          2. Recommended intake: 55 mcg adult female and male
          3. Example food sources: Brazil nuts, seafood, meat, organ meats, poultry, dairy, grains, cereals
        1.  

Video Transcript

This lesson is going to cover macro and micronutrients.
Let’s establish some definitions first. Macro=large, as the name macronutrients suggests.  These are the substances needed in relatively larger amounts for growth and health. In contrast, micro=small, so micronutrients are substances that are required in relatively smaller amounts.  But even though micronutrients are needed in smaller amounts, it doesn’t make them any less important in their role in the body.

The first macronutrient we are going to talk about is carbohydrate.  It’s main function is to supply energy to the body. The recommended intake is a minimum of 130 g/day.  Some food sources where you will find carbohydrate is fruits, vegetables, grains, and starches.

The next macronutrient is fat.  Its role in the body is energy storage, insulation, organ protection, and vitamin absorption, specifically the fat soluble vitamins.  The current recommendation is for total fat to be 20-35% of daily calories; with saturated fat <10%. Fat is found in nuts, seeds, oils, meat, dairy, fish, salad dressings, and baked goods.

The last macronutrient is protein.  Its role in the body is structure, growth, maintenance and repair, enzymes, hormones, pH and fluid balance, and immune system.  The daily recommended amount is 46 g for adult female and56 g for an adult males. It can be found in foods such as meat, fish, dairy, eggs, nuts, seeds, legumes, and whole grains.

Vitamin A is the first of the fat soluble vitamins.  Fat soluble vitamins are vitamins that are absorbed with fat in the diet and the body can store them in fatty tissue.  Some important roles for Vitamin A include vision, immune system, growth, reproduction, cell growth, and differentiation.  The daily recommended amount for Vitamin A is 700 mcg for the adult female and 900 mcg RAE for adult males. Food sources include the animal sources, called preformed Vitamin A, such as liver, egg yolks, fortified milk and dairy products, plant sources of vitamin A are called provitamin and include dark-colored fruits and vegetables.

The next fat soluble vitamin is Vitamin D.  Its role in the body is calcium and phosphorus balance, bone growth, and the immune system.  The daily recommended amount is 600 International Units (IU) for both the adult male and female.  Some food sources of vitamin D include fatty fish, fortified milk and dairy products.

The next fat-soluble vitamin is vitamin E.  It’s role is important as an antioxidant in the body and also the immune system.  The daily recommended amount for vitamin E is 15 mg for both adult females and males.  Food sources of vitamin E include vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, fortified cereals, and some fruits and vegetables.

The last fat soluble vitamin is Vitamin K.  It’s role in the body includes blood clotting and bone health.  The daily recommended amount is 90 mcg for the adult female and 120 mcg for the adult male.  Some food sources of vitamin K include leafy green vegetables, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and some other vegetables.

Next up is the water soluble vitamins.  The water soluble vitamins dissolve in water.  And unlike fat soluble vitamins, the body can’t store water soluble vitamins.  Thiamin, also called Vitamin B1, has an important role in the body with metabolism and the nervous system.  The daily recommended intake for thiamin is 1.1 mg adult female and 1.2 mg adult male. Some food sources of thiamin include pork, fortified cereals, whole grains, and enriched bread products.

Riboflavin, also called (Vitamin B2, has important functions in the body, including metabolism, energy production, growth, and development.  The daily recommended amount of riboflavin is 1.1 mg adult female and 1.3 mg adult male. Some food sources that provide riboflavin are liver, meat, dairy, yogurt, and fortified cereals.

The next water-soluble vitamin is Niacin, also called Vitamin B3.  It’s role in the body is energy production, metabolism, and DNA. The daily recommended amount of niacin is 14 mg for the adult female and 16 mg for the adult male. Food sources include lean meats, poultry, fish, peanuts, and yeasts.

Pantothenic acid also called Vitamin B5, is important in the body for metabolism.  The daily recommended amount is 1.3 mg for both adult females and males. Food sources include beef, chicken, organ meats, yogurt, fortified cereals, some vegetables (especially mushrooms).

Pyridoxine, also called Vitamin B6, has an important role in the body with metabolism, nervous system, and immune system.  The daily recommended amount for pyridoxine is 1.3 mg for both adult females and males. Food sources include beef, poultry, fish, and fortified foods.

Biotin, or B7, plays a role in metabolism and gene regulation. The daily amount is 30 mcg for both the adult female and male.  Food sources of biotin include liver, eggs, fish, meat nuts, seeds, and certain vegetables.

Folate, or Vitamin B9, plays a role in DNA/RNA and amino acid metabolism.  The daily recommended amount for folate is 400 mcg for both the adult female and male.  Food sources include leafy green vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, grains, seafood, meat, poultry, and eggs.

Cobalamin, also called Vitamin B12, plays a role with red blood cell formation, nervous system,  and DNA. The daily recommended amount for Vitamin B12 is 2.4 mcg for both the adult female and male.  Food sources include meat, fish, poultry, milk, milk products,and fortified foods.

The last water soluble vitamin is Vitamin C.  It plays a role with collagen and connective tissue, antioxidant, protein metabolism, and wound healing.  The daily recommended amount is 75 mg adult female and 90 mg adult male. The best food sources include fruits and vegetables.

Next up are the minerals.  The first of which is Calcium.  Calcium is important for bones, teeth, muscle function, heart, and nervous system. The daily amount for calcium is 1000 mg for both adult female and male.  The best food sources of calcium are milk, yogurt, cheese, canned fish with bones, and some vegetables. 

The next mineral, Magnesium, is important with protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood pressure, bone health, and RNA/DNA.  The recommended daily amount is 320 mg for both adult female and male. Food sources include leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

Phosphorus is important for bones, teeth, DNA/RNA, cell membranes, energy production and storage, and enzyme activation.  The daily recommended amount is 700 mg for both adult female and male. Food sources include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, nuts, legumes, and some vegetables.

The mineral Iron plays an important role with hemoglobin, muscle metabolism, connective tissue, growth, and development.  The daily recommended amount is 18 mg for the adult female and 8 mg for the adult male. Food sources include meat, seafood, nuts, beans, vegetables, and fortified grains.

Potassium has a role in the body with fluid balance, nervous system, muscle and heart contraction.  The daily recommended amount is 4700 mg for both the adult female and male. Food sources include certain fruits and vegetables, legumes, meat, poultry, fish, and dairy.

Sodium plays a role with fluid balance and blood volume.  The maximum recommended amount is 2300 mg for both adult females and males.  Food sources include cheese, smoked, cured, salted or canned meat, some processed foods, canned foods, salted nuts and seeds.

Zinc is important with the immune system, protein synthesis, DNA, and taste and smell.  The daily recommended amount is 8 mg for both adult females and males. Food sources include oysters, red meat, poultry, beans, seeds, and fortified cereals.

Copper plays a role with energy production, iron metabolism, connective tissue, and nervous system.  900 mcg is the recommended amount for adult females and males. Food sources include shellfish, organ meats, nuts, whole grains, and chocolate.

Manganese is important with metabolism, as an antioxidant, blood clotting, bone health, immune system, and reproduction.  The daily recommended amount is 1.8 mg for both adult females and males. Food sources include mussels, oysters, clams, nuts, legumes, rice, whole grains, leafy green vegetables, coffee, tea, and some spices.

The last mineral is Selenium.  It plays a role with reproduction, thyroid, DNA, antioxidant, and the immune system.  55 mcg is the recommended amount for adult females and males. Food sources include Brazil nuts, seafood, meat, organ meats, poultry, dairy, grains, and cereals.

In summary, macronutrients are needed in relatively larger amounts for growth and health.  The macronutrients include carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Micronutrients are needed in relatively smaller amounts and includes the vitamins, both fat soluble and water soluble, as well as minerals.

[FREE]
[FREE]