Hyperemesis gravidarum is extreme morning sickness that causes long-lasting intense nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. While many pregnant women experience morning sickness, hyperemesis gravidarum develops between the 4th – 6th weeks of pregnancy and may last longer than week 20. Symptoms may be so severe that they interrupt the patient’s daily activities.
While the exact cause is still unknown, many believe hyperemesis gravidarum is caused by a rapid rise in hormone (hCG) levels. This condition may last several weeks or throughout the majority of the pregnancy. Complications that may arise from excessive vomiting include dehydration, renal impairment, malnutrition, and electrolyte imbalance.
Reduce and manage symptoms of nausea and vomiting; maintain appropriate nutrition and hydration; avoid complications and injury to patient and fetus
Hyperemesis Gravidarum Nursing Care Plan
- Food/smell aversions
Nursing Interventions and Rationales
- Assess vital signs
- Heart rate
- Blood pressure
Note vital signs to get a baseline
- Assess for signs of dehydration
- Dry mucous membranes
- Skin tenting
Fluid loss from vomiting and an inability to tolerate oral fluids may result in dehydration.
- Monitor diagnostic labs
- Metabolic panel
Monitor labs to determine if the patient has electrolyte imbalance or renal impairment from excessive vomiting.
- Administer medications and IV fluids
- IV fluids will be necessary to help manage electrolyte balance and maintain adequate hydration.
- Medications may be administered to help relieve nausea.
Monitor urine and emesis for blood; also note dark urine and decreased output that indicates renal function impairment
Patients often lose approx 5% of their weight. Monitor weight to ensure interventions are effective.
- Assess for and treat constipation as necessary
- Decreased intestinal motility from dehydration can cause uncomfortable constipation.
- Encourage oral intake as tolerated to increase intestinal motility and relieve constipation.
- Administer stool softeners as appropriate.
- Patients are often weak and may become dizzy or lightheaded upon standing.
- Encourage patient to conserve energy with bed rest and assist with ambulation to prevent injury.
- Monitor nutrition status to prevent further weight loss
- Encourage oral intake as tolerated
- Provide frequent snacks
- Insert and maintain nasogastric feeding as appropriate
Excessive vomiting and food/smell aversions make it difficult to maintain proper nutrition and tube feedings may be necessary to provide adequate nutrition for patients and fetuses.
- Provide a comfortable environment
- Loose-fitting garments
- Decrease environmental stimulation (light/noise)
- Avoid foods or odors that trigger nausea
Avoid known triggers such as foods or smells. Take note of offending hygiene products and offer alternatives. Toothpaste is often a trigger.
- Promote safety
- Emesis basin within easy reach
- Clear access to toilet
- Non-slip socks/shoes
- Avoid accidents or injuries by providing a safe environment.
- Introducing IV fluids and medications may cause bowel or bladder urgency and result in incontinent episodes.
- Provide assistance and supplies as necessary to promote skin integrity and avoid falls.
Cornell Note-Taking System Instructions:
- Record: During the lecture, use the note-taking column to record the lecture using telegraphic sentences.
- Questions: As soon after class as possible, formulate questions based onthe notes in the right-hand column. Writing questions helps to clarifymeanings, reveal relationships, establish continuity, and strengthenmemory. Also, the writing of questions sets up a perfect stage for exam-studying later.
- Recite: Cover the note-taking column with a sheet of paper. Then, looking at the questions or cue-words in the question and cue column only, say aloud, in your own words, the answers to the questions, facts, or ideas indicated by the cue-words.
- Reflect: Reflect on the material by asking yourself questions, for example: “What’s the significance of these facts? What principle are they based on? How can I apply them? How do they fit in with what I already know? What’s beyond them?
- Review: Spend at least ten minutes every week reviewing all your previous notes. If you do, you’ll retain a great deal for current use, as well as, for the exam.
For more information, visit www.nursing.com/cornell