The tonsils are oval-shaped masses of tissue found on both sides of the back of the throat and help the immune system fight off bacteria and viruses that enter through the mouth. Tonsillitis occurs when the tonsils become inflamed or infected. Many cases resolve on their own, but some bacterial infections require treatment. Repeated bacterial infections, or those that do not respond to treatment, may result in surgery to remove the tonsils.
Viruses account for the majority of cases of tonsillitis and are usually seen in young children, under the age of five. The most common bacterial infection is Streptococcus pyogenes (strep throat). This is easily spread by being in close contact with other affected individuals and is especially common in school-aged children. As the tonsils become swollen, the airway may become blocked which is an emergency. Complications of untreated tonsillitis include rheumatic fever and inflammation of the kidneys (post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis). Practicing good hand hygiene can help prevent the spread of viruses and bacteria that cause tonsillitis.
The patient will be free from pain and infection; the patient will have adequate nutritional intake and hydration; the patient will maintain the adequate respiratory status
Tonsillitis Nursing Care Plan
- Pain in the throat > 24-48 hours
- Refusing food or drink
- Difficulty swallowing
- Bad breath
- Palpable lymph glands in the neck
- Swollen tonsils
- Erythema or pustules in the throat
Nursing Interventions and Rationales
Get a baseline to determine if interventions are effective. Assess for fever which can lead to tachycardia, tachypnea, and elevated blood pressure
Look for erythema, pustules, or petechiae that may indicate infection. Assess for adequate airway. Note any post-nasal drip that could cause throat pain.
- Assess for signs of dehydration
Throat pain in children often causes them to refuse food and drink because swallowing is painful. Note mucous membranes.
- Assess for pain using appropriate pain scale for age (FLACC / FACES) and provide non-pharmacological pain relief methods
Throat pain is the most common symptom of tonsillitis, but patients may not be able to verbalize complaints. Note nonverbal cues such as crying, mouth breathing, irritability, or refusal to eat or drink.
- Administer medications as appropriate
Viral tonsillitis requires only symptom management and will resolve on its own. Bacterial tonsillitis (strep) will require antibiotics. Give analgesics such as acetaminophen orally or rectally as appropriate for age, for pain relief.
- Prepare patient for and assist with surgery as required
Repeated infections or those that are resistant to treatment may require surgical removal of the tonsils.
- Encourage patient to eat and drink; avoid dairy products
It is important to maintain adequate nutrition to help the immune system fight off disease. Dairy products coat the throat and may cause the patient to cough which will further irritate the throat and cause pain, especially after surgery
- Provide patient and parent education for home care and prevention
- Demonstrate and educate parents and patients about good hand hygiene to avoid the spread of germs.
- Encourage patients to avoid playing with other children when they feel sick.
- Encourage rest to help the immune system work.
- Parents should keep children home from school or daycare while running a fever.
Cornell Note-Taking System Instructions:
- Record: During the lecture, use the note-taking column to record the lecture using telegraphic sentences.
- Questions: As soon after class as possible, formulate questions based onthe notes in the right-hand column. Writing questions helps to clarifymeanings, reveal relationships, establish continuity, and strengthenmemory. Also, the writing of questions sets up a perfect stage for exam-studying later.
- Recite: Cover the note-taking column with a sheet of paper. Then, looking at the questions or cue-words in the question and cue column only, say aloud, in your own words, the answers to the questions, facts, or ideas indicated by the cue-words.
- Reflect: Reflect on the material by asking yourself questions, for example: “What’s the significance of these facts? What principle are they based on? How can I apply them? How do they fit in with what I already know? What’s beyond them?
- Review: Spend at least ten minutes every week reviewing all your previous notes. If you do, you’ll retain a great deal for current use, as well as, for the exam.
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