Hyperkalemia – Causes Nursing Mnemonic
- M-Medications – ACE Inhibitors, NSAIDS, potassium-sparing diuretics
- A-Acidosis – Metabolic and respiratory
- C-Cellular destruction – burns, traumatic injury, hemolysis
- H-Hypoaldosteronism – Addison’s
- I-Intake- excessive
- N-Nephrons- renal failure
- E-Excretion – Impaired
Hyperkalemia is elevated potassium in the blood. Typical levels of potassium in the blood are 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L. In acidosis and cellular destruction, potassium shifts from inside the cell to the blood stream. Medications and kidney damage can decrease urinary excretion of potassium. Excessive intake of potassium can also lead to hyperkalemia. Potassium is necessary for the transmission of electrical impulses in heart and skeletal muscle; therefore increased potassium can cause ECG changes.
Cornell Note-Taking System Instructions:
- Record: During the lecture, use the note-taking column to record the lecture using telegraphic sentences.
- Questions: As soon after class as possible, formulate questions based onthe notes in the right-hand column. Writing questions helps to clarifymeanings, reveal relationships, establish continuity, and strengthenmemory. Also, the writing of questions sets up a perfect stage for exam-studying later.
- Recite: Cover the note-taking column with a sheet of paper. Then, looking at the questions or cue-words in the question and cue column only, say aloud, in your own words, the answers to the questions, facts, or ideas indicated by the cue-words.
- Reflect: Reflect on the material by asking yourself questions, for example: “What’s the significance of these facts? What principle are they based on? How can I apply them? How do they fit in with what I already know? What’s beyond them?
- Review: Spend at least ten minutes every week reviewing all your previous notes. If you do, you’ll retain a great deal for current use, as well as, for the exam.
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