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02.06 Antimicrobial Vaccinations

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Overview

  1. Pathogenic Microbes in Humans
    1. Viruses- non-living, species-specific requires a host cell to replicate.
      1. Hepatitis, chickenpox, whooping cough
    2. Bacteria- single-celled organisms, divide quickly, w and /out cell wall
      1. Tetanus, pneumococcus
    3. Fungi- single-celled and multicellular, chitin cell walls,
      1. Athlete’s foot, yeast infections
    4. Protists- Protozoan organisms usually single-celled with a nucleus.
      1. Malaria, amoebic dysentery, Giardiasis, African Sleeping Sickness
  2. Role of vaccinations – expose the immune system to antigens from pathogens in order to produce a faster and stronger immune response.
    1. How immunization from vaccines works- inject a dead/attenuated version of the pathogen’s antigens. This triggers memory cell and antibody production through an acquired immune response.
  3. Examples of antiviral (killed vs live)
    1. Polio, Chicken Pox
  4. Examples of antibacterial
    1. Tetanus, Hib
  5. Importance of herd immunity- the more individuals vaccinated the less likely there will be an outbreak. Protects the weak.
  6. Common Childhood Vaccinations in the United States
    1. Hepatitis B
      1. Disease transmitted through blood, semen, and other body fluids.
      2. Prevents disease causes infection of the liver which can have lasting effects like liver failure, liver cancer, and cirrhosis
      3. Vaccine is given in a series usually completed by 6 mos of age.
    2. Rotavirus
      1. Disease transmitted by the fecal-oral route
      2. Prevents disease that causes vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and life-threatening dehydration
      3. Vaccine is given in a series usually completed by 6 mos of age.
    3. Diphtheria
      1. Disease transmitted via airborne droplets and contaminated items.
      2. Vaccine prevents a disease that causes swollen glands, sore throat, difficulty breathing, fever, chills, and malaise.
      3. Vaccine is given is series by age 7.
    4. Tetanus
      1. Bacterial disease transmitted via spores in soil and animal excrement into a wound.
      2. Vaccine prevents disease that causes lockjaw, involuntary muscle stiffness, trouble swallowing, seizures, headache, fever, death.
      3. Vaccine is given is series by age 7.
    5. Pertussis (whooping cough)
      1. Acute viral disease transmitted via air droplets from coughing and sneezing.
      2. Vaccine prevents fever, severe coughing that makes a whooping sound, runny nose, fatigue.
      3. Vaccine is given is series by age 7.
    6. Measles
      1. Disease transmitted via highly contagious airborne droplets.
      2. Vaccine prevents high fever, malaise, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, maculopapular rash 14 days later
      3. Vaccine doses are usually given from 12 mos -12 years of age.
    7. Mumps
      1. Disease is an airborne virus spread from coughing and sneezing.
      2. Vaccine prevents fever, headache, swollen salivary glands, muscle aches, fatigue.
      3. Vaccine doses are usually given from 12 mos -12 years of age.
    8. Rubella (German Measles)
      1. Viral disease that is spread through coughing and sneezing.
      2. Vaccine prevents causes fever, headache, pink eye, enlarged lymph nodes, cough, runny nose. Can cause stillbirth or birth defects if infected during pregnancy.
      3. Vaccine doses are usually given from 12 mos -12 years of age.
    9. Chicken Pox Varicella
      1. Viral disease that is contracted through air droplets or direct contact with rash.
      2. Vaccine prevents itchy rash, fever, tiredness, headache, or shingles in adults.
      3. Vaccine doses usually between 12 months and 6 years of age.
    10. Hepatitis A
      1. Viral disease spread through contaminated objects, food, drinks, feces, close contact.
      2. Vaccine prevents fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, diarrhea, joint pain, jaundice of skin, and eyes.
      3. Vaccine administered at 1 year old.
    11. Meningococcus
      1. Bacterial disease that is spread through saliva, coughing, or kissing.
      2. Vaccine prevents fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, photophobia, an altered mental status due to meningitis, sepsis.
      3. Vaccine administered to preteens at 11/12 years old and all teens 16 years of age.
    12. Pneumococcus
      1. Bacterial disease that is spread through respiratory secretions.
      2. Vaccine prevents fever, chills, cough, breathing difficulty, chest pain, meningitis, sepsis.
      3. Vaccine administered in series to infants, children and adults 65 years of age and older.
    13. Haemophilus influenza (Hib)
      1. Bacterial disease that is spread through respiratory droplets.
      2. Vaccine prevents ear infections, sinusitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, and sepsis.
    14. Seasonal Influenza
      1. Viral disease that is spread through respiratory droplets.
      2. Vaccine prevents fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, fatigue, pneumonia.
      3. Vaccine administered to everyone 6 months of age and older.

Reference Links

Video Transcript

Today we’re going to be talking about Antimicrobial vaccinations.

 

In this lesson on antimicrobial vaccinations we will discuss pathogenic microbes in humans, the role of vaccines, examples of vaccinations and lastly the concept of herd immunity.

 

There are four main categories of microbes that are pathogenic to humans. Viruses, which are non-living, species specific, that require a host cell in order to replicate. Some common examples of viruses pathogenic to humans are hepatitis, chicken pox and whooping cough. Next up are bacteria, which are single-celled organisms that divide quickly, there are types with and without cell walls. Examples include tetanus (lock jaw)  and pneumococcus. Then we have the group of microbes that call fungi

 

These organisms are single-celled and multicellular. Their cell walls are made of chitin. Examples include athlete’s foot and yeast infections. And lastly there are the protists, These organisms can be single or multicellular and have a nucleus Examples of protists that are pathogenic are malaria, African sleeping sickness, amoebic dysentery and Giardiasis.

 

So in light of the idea that there are many microbes that can make humans sick, vaccinations came about to help prevent illness. Vaccines work through the  injection of a dead/attenuated version of the pathogen’s antigens. This triggers the immune system to create memory cells and begin antibody production through acquired immune response. Thus the primary role of vaccinations- is to expose immune system to antigens from pathogens in order to produce a faster and stronger immune response. This graph her shows the rate of antibody production after the initial exposure and then after the body’s secondary expose. You can see the rate of increase for the secondary exposure is faster and much stronger. SInce the immune system had intel on what the “bad guy” looked like the response time was much faster and much. much more powerful.  Consider the primary response is what occurs when a vaccine is administered in hopes for the body to be prepared should it ever be exposed to the real thing .

And lastly We are going to discuss the idea of herd immunity.  And this graphic does a nice job of visualizing vaccinations make a difference. So the top row shows a population in purple that are not immunized but are healthy, and with a few infected it spreads throughout the entire population over time ( the people in red). So the fewer people vaccinated the more people are likely to get sick. In the next row we have a population that only as a few immunized and the disease still spread the majority of the population. The last row has an initial population that is primarily vaccinated and overtime most of the disease is contained. This concept  helps protect those that are weak , vulnerable from being exposed in the first place.

So in review, vaccines are designed to prevent individuals from contracting a pathogenic microbe whether it is viral or bacterial. There are many examples of childhood vaccinations designed to keep us safe, from protecting us against viruses such as polio and chicken pox and bacterial infections like tetanus and pneumococcus. And lastly herd immunity means the more individuals that are vaccinated in a given population the safer our most vulnerable individuals are.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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