Nursing Care Plan for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
A chronic airway obstruction that limits airflow into and out of the alveoli – this restricts O2 from entering AND traps CO2 from escaping.
There are two types of COPD: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. The most common cause of COPD is smoking of any form: cigarette, pipe, cigar, second hand. Any lung irritant can cause COPD and also exacerbate it.
Clear, even, non-labored breathing while maintaining optimal oxygenation for patients.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Nursing Care Plan
- Difficulty Breathing
- Chest tightness
- “I can’t breathe”
- ↓ Oxygen saturation
- ↓ pH and ↑ pCO2 on ABG
- Blue/Gray lips/fingernails
- Inability to speak full sentences (have to stop to breathe)
- Caused by Cor Pulmonale (right-sided heart failure due to increased pressures within the lungs).
- Barrel Chest
- Congestion on X-ray
Nursing Interventions and Rationales
- Avoid irritants:
- Quit smoking or being around secondhand smoke
- Be mindful of the weather (very cold weather can aggravate the bronchi)
- Allergens like dust or pollen
- If the patient has been working very hard to breathe for a long period and is getting worse, be prepared with an airway cart. And for the love of the airway, have your respiratory therapist aware of the patient!
- Breathing Treatments and medications**Bronchodilators BEFORE corticosteroids
- Beta-Agonists: Such as albuterol work as bronchodilators
- Anticholinergics: Such as Ipratropium work to relax bronchospasms
- Corticosteroids: Such as Fluticasone work as an anti-inflammatory
- Monitor Oxygen saturation. Do NOT give > 2 pm NC without orders from a provider.
- Obtain an ECG
- Encourage a healthy weight can be either overweight or underweight
- Encourage small, frequent meals
- Encourage movement/activity
- Assess for/Administer influenza vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine
What is COPD? COPD is a chronic disease where the flow of air in the lungs is obstructed, resulting in less oxygen and more carbon dioxide build-up. The obstruction is caused by a combination of inflamed damaged alveoli and mucus build-up. What are the best interventions for COPD? The best interventions for COPD are smoking cessation to decrease damage, nebulizers, and inhalers to open the lungs and decrease inflammation, careful oxygen supplementation, and a BIPAP or CPAP to blow off built-up carbon dioxide from the body. What causes COPD? Inhaling lung irritants consistently over a long period of time such as cigarette smoking causes COPD. The irritants damage the alveoli and cause inflammation which in turn makes it hard for the lungs to do their job of bringing in oxygen and blowing out carbon dioxide. What does COPD stand for? COPD stands for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Is COPD curable? COPD cannot be cured, but it can be treated. Treatment includes smoking cessation to stop further damage, light exercise to encourage deep breathing, inhaler or nebulizer treatments to open the lungs and decrease inflammation, along with oxygen and a CPAP if needed to improve oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.
Cornell Note-Taking System Instructions:
- Record: During the lecture, use the note-taking column to record the lecture using telegraphic sentences.
- Questions: As soon after class as possible, formulate questions based onthe notes in the right-hand column. Writing questions helps to clarifymeanings, reveal relationships, establish continuity, and strengthenmemory. Also, the writing of questions sets up a perfect stage for exam-studying later.
- Recite: Cover the note-taking column with a sheet of paper. Then, looking at the questions or cue-words in the question and cue column only, say aloud, in your own words, the answers to the questions, facts, or ideas indicated by the cue-words.
- Reflect: Reflect on the material by asking yourself questions, for example: “What’s the significance of these facts? What principle are they based on? How can I apply them? How do they fit in with what I already know? What’s beyond them?
- Review: Spend at least ten minutes every week reviewing all your previous notes. If you do, you’ll retain a great deal for current use, as well as, for the exam.
For more information, visit www.nursing.com/cornell