Nursing Care Plan for Vomiting / Diarrhea
The forceful emptying of the stomach contents is known as throwing up (vomiting). Two or more loose, watery stools constitute diarrhea. Vomiting and diarrhea without fever are common in children. Vomiting and diarrhea often occur together but may happen independently of each other and at any time. The symptoms, while frustrating and worrisome, may serve as the body’s natural method to rid itself of the offending cause. Extended periods of vomiting or diarrhea may lead to dehydration.
A child’s gastrointestinal system is sensitive and may react to certain medications or foods that are hard to digest, such as sweets or undercooked meats. Other causes of vomiting and diarrhea may be viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Viral gastroenteritis is the most common cause of vomiting and diarrhea, specifically Rotavirus and Norovirus.
The patient will have soft, formed stools; the patient will vomit less than 2 times in 24 hours; the patient will maintain adequate hydration
Vomiting / Diarrhea Nursing Care Plan
- Abdominal pain
- Irritability (infants and toddlers)
- Decreased appetite
- >2 loose, watery stools in 24 hours
Nursing Interventions and Rationales
- Assess patient for the degree of vomiting: mild (1-2x/day), moderate (3-7x/day) or severe (8 or more or vomits everything consumed)
- Obtain history and information from the patient’s parent or caregiver
- Assess vital signs
- Assess for blood in stool or emesis
- Assess abdomen for distention, hyperactive bowel sounds and cramping
- Monitor Intake and Output
- Obtain samples of stool for culture
- Provide perineal care following diarrhea
- Encourage oral hydration; Administer oral rehydration solution (ORS) as necessary or IV fluids as appropriate
- Educate patient and family on BRAT diet (Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, and Toast)
- Administer medications as appropriate
- Provide patient and family education to manage and prevent symptoms
Cornell Note-Taking System Instructions:
- Record: During the lecture, use the note-taking column to record the lecture using telegraphic sentences.
- Questions: As soon after class as possible, formulate questions based onthe notes in the right-hand column. Writing questions helps to clarifymeanings, reveal relationships, establish continuity, and strengthenmemory. Also, the writing of questions sets up a perfect stage for exam-studying later.
- Recite: Cover the note-taking column with a sheet of paper. Then, looking at the questions or cue-words in the question and cue column only, say aloud, in your own words, the answers to the questions, facts, or ideas indicated by the cue-words.
- Reflect: Reflect on the material by asking yourself questions, for example: “What’s the significance of these facts? What principle are they based on? How can I apply them? How do they fit in with what I already know? What’s beyond them?
- Review: Spend at least ten minutes every week reviewing all your previous notes. If you do, you’ll retain a great deal for current use, as well as, for the exam.
For more information, visit www.nursing.com/cornell